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ESQUIRE20 (redirected from FrontPage)

Page history last edited by Andrew Booth 3 years, 9 months ago


Evidence Synthesis of QUalItative Research in Europe (ESQUIRE20) 

Methods Workshop on Qualitative Evidence Synthesis




This is a site to support the Evidence Synthesis of QUalItative Research in Europe (ESQUIRE) Methods Workshops on Qualitative Evidence Synthesis [Co-ordinated by the Cochrane Qualitative Research & Implementation Methods Group]


Overview of the course:

This course is designed to provide participants with a state-of-the art perspective on the methodology of qualitative systematic reviews (qualitative evidence syntheses). It will focus on methods that feature in the forthcoming guidance of the Cochrane Qualitative Research Methods Group but will also incorporate a broader perspective on available methods of qualitative synthesis.


Suitable for:

  • Qualitative Researchers who want to learn how to synthesise qualitative research
  • Systematic Reviewers who want to learn how to translate synthesis methods to qualitative data
  • PhD Students in topic areas that will require substantive review of qualitative research
  • New researchers who want to develop evidence synthesis/systematic review
  • Qualitative systematic reviewers who want to update and extend their skills and knowledge


Expected outcomes of this Programme:

By the end of this programme participants will be able to:

  1. Describe the main methods of evidence synthesis in terms of their strengths and weaknesses
  2. Rehearse the stages of the systematic review process, specifically in relation to the methodological challenges associated with synthesis of qualitative evidence
  3. Distinguish between aggregative and interpretive approaches to qualitative evidence synthesis
  4. Identify circumstances under which framework analysis or grounded theory-based approaches to synthesis are most appropriate
  5. Describe the requirements for presenting data and disseminating the findings of qualitative evidence syntheses, both as standard-alone reviews and when integrating with the outputs of quantitative systematic reviews.


Overview of content:

The course will follow the main steps of the systematic review process as it applies, and is adapted to, qualitative evidence syntheses. The Programme Faculty will take participants through the stages of defining and exploring scope, conducting the literature searches, quality assessing studies for inclusion, synthesising data and writing up and presenting the product of the synthesis. The emphasis will be on those aspects of methods that either relate specifically to qualitative evidence synthesis or that need to be translated or adapted in order to meet new methodological challenges. Participants will be provided with an excellent overview of current methods of qualitative evidence synthesis together with practical experience of key stages in the review process.


Pre course requirements

No formal experience is required. A working knowledge of standard systematic review methods will be an advantage – alternatively participants would find it helpful to read Systematic Reviews: CRD’s guidance for undertaking reviews in healthcare (http://www.york.ac.uk/inst/crd/systematic_reviews_book.htmprior to the course. A background in qualitative research methodologies would be advantageous but is not essential .



The Halifax Conference Centre, Sheffield, S10 3ER


Day 1 – Planning, Scoping and Searching the Literature

10am - 4pm (Course Evening Dinner at approximately 7pm)

Day One - Combined Powerpoint


10 am    Introduction and Overview

10:20 Practical Exercise - Readers’ Guide to Qualitative Evidence Synthesis

10:50 Where to Start: Choosing a Topic and Focusing Your Question

Logic Model <ppt>

            Mini Exercise – Focusing Your Own Question

11:00-11:15 BREAK

11:25 Writing Your Protocol and Planning Your Review

            Practical – Using PubMed PubReminer to plan and scope your review

            Article - Butler (2016) - Writing Your Protocol for a Qualitative Evidence Synthesis    


11:55 Issues and Challenges about Sampling


12:15 Lunch


13:00 Searching for Qualitative Evidence (Part One) - Sources and Strategies - Helen Woods <Powerpoint>

Booth A - Searching for qualitative research for inclusion in systematic reviews: a structured methodological review

Mini Exercise – Identifying Qualitative Keywords


13:45 Searching and Sifting for Qualitative Evidence (Part Two) - Using Filters & Supplementary Methods

            Practical – Using PubMed Health Services Research Qualitative Filters

            ISSG Filters Site - Filters to Identify Qualitative Research

            McMaster Hedges Site - Qualitative Hedges


15:00 Break


15:15-15:45 Practical – Selecting Studies

Sample Excel Dropdown Menus <Excel>

Day One - Study Selection - Google Drive Exercise https://drive.google.com/open?id=1u9oJIqFKzkWVpjwHptQrWS-D2EqUx03XZjce8CgspNA


15:45 Feedback and Questions


16:00 Close


Day 2 – Extracting, Assessing and Synthesising Data

Day Two - Combined Powerpoint 

09:00 What is Data and Where is it Found? Fiona Campbell

09:20 Practical - Data Extraction - Google Drive Exercise https://drive.google.com/open?id=1rL5XZSTJh_6Kf9o_YNjABMwdTuEtJrQf5h25TgB4pa4

Article A

Article B

Article C 

Data Extraction Form <Word>

QARI Data Extraction form


10:00 Choosing Your Checklist


10:20-11:30 Practical – Quality Assessment (including Refreshments 10:45 - 11:00) - 

- Google Drive Exercise https://drive.google.com/open?id=1vEHpBO5S6jV0uxdcn4-nCwX3Yten6Fg8rztOy2k1_DI

Video <YouTube>

Critical Appraisal Form <Word>


JBI QARI assessment tool

QUART - Quality of Reporting Tool


11:30 Issues and Challenges about Quality Assessment

Video Presentation - Quality Assessment, Karin Hannes, Cochrane QIMG Co-convenor

Video <YouTube>

Slides <Powerpoint>


12:00-12:45 Lunch


12:45 Choosing Your Method of Qualitative Synthesis

Report - Guidance on Choosing the Appropriate Method of Synthesis (INTEGRATE-HTA) <pdf>


13:10 -14:15 Practical - Developing Descriptive Themes


14:15 – 15:00 Practical - Generating Analytical Themes


15:00 Break


15:15-15:45 Issues and Challenges about Synthesis

Booth A & Carroll C (2015) -How to build up the actionable knowledge base: the role of ‘best fit’ framework synthesis for studies of improvement in healthcare


15:45 Feedback and Questions

16:00 Close

Day 3 – Analysing Your Data and Writing Up Your Review

Day Two - Combined Powerpoint


09:00 Using Theory to Inform Your Synthesis and Analysis


09:30 Practical Session: On Theory and Frameworks

Demystifying theory and its use in improvement - Davidoff (2015) 

Searching for Theories - Booth A (2016) - Systematic searching for theory to inform systematic reviews: is it feasible? Is it desirable?

Choosing Theories - Candidate Models <Powerpoint>


11:00 Coffee Break


11:15 Presenting Your Data


12:15 Lunch


13:00 Using CERQual and Making Recommendations - Megan Wainwright

<CERQUAL Article>

<CERQUAL Web site>

<CERQual Worksheet>


14:00 Writing Up and Reporting Standards



14:45 Questions, Feedback and Conclusion

15:00 Depart



Select Bibliography 


Further Information


Seers 2012 What is a qualitative synthesis.pdf

Snilstveit et al (2012) Narrative approaches.pdf

Tong 2014 A guide to reading and using systematic reviews.pdf 


ASQUS Discussion List

Cochrane HandbookChapter 20: Qualitative research and Cochrane reviews. Noyes J, Popay J, Pearson A, Hannes K and Booth A on behalf of the Cochrane Qualitative Research Methods Group. Copyright © 2008 The Cochrane Collaboration.

Cochrane Qualitative Evidence Synthesis Register
Cochrane Qualitative & Implementation Methods Group 

First Ever Qualitative Cochrane Review

Cochrane QIMG Anniversary Article


Realist synthesis protocols:

Protocol: a realist review of user fee exemption policies for health services in Africa

Protocol: Assessing the outcomes of participatory research: protocol for identifying, selecting, appraising and synthesizing the literature for realist review

Protocol: Understanding the relationship between the perceived characteristics of clinical practice guidelines and their uptake: protocol for a realist review


Tools to Assist Qualitative Reviewers

  • Cochrane Guidance

Noyes J, Booth A, Cargo M, Flemming K, Garside R, Hannes K, Harden A, Harris J, Lewin S, Pantoja T, Thomas J. Cochrane Qualitative and Implementation Methods Group guidance series-paper 1: introduction. J Clin Epidemiol. 2018 May;97:35-38. doi: 10.1016/j.jclinepi.2017.09.025.

Harris JL, Booth A, Cargo M, Hannes K, Harden A, Flemming K, Garside R, Pantoja T, Thomas J, Noyes J. Cochrane Qualitative and Implementation Methods Group guidance series-paper 2: methods for question formulation, searching, and protocol development for qualitative evidence synthesis. J Clin Epidemiol. 2018 May;97:39-48. doi: 10.1016/j.jclinepi.2017.10.023. Epub 2017 Dec 15. PubMed PMID: 29248725.

Noyes J, Booth A, Flemming K, Garside R, Harden A, Lewin S, Pantoja T, Hannes K, Cargo M, Thomas J. Cochrane Qualitative and Implementation Methods Group guidance series-paper 3: methods for assessing methodological limitations, data extraction and synthesis, and confidence in synthesized qualitative findings. J Clin Epidemiol. 2018 May;97:49-58. doi: 10.1016/j.jclinepi.2017.06.020. Epub 2017 Dec 13. PubMed PMID: 29247700.

Cargo M, Harris J, Pantoja T, Booth A, Harden A, Hannes K, Thomas J, Flemming K, Garside R, Noyes J. Cochrane Qualitative and Implementation Methods Group guidance series-paper 4: methods for assessing evidence on intervention implementation. J Clin Epidemiol. 2018 May;97:59-69. doi: 10.1016/j.jclinepi.2017.11.028. Epub 2017 Dec 7. PubMed PMID: 29223325.

Harden A, Thomas J, Cargo M, Harris J, Pantoja T, Flemming K, Booth A, Garside R, Hannes K, Noyes J. Cochrane Qualitative and Implementation Methods Group guidance series-paper 5: methods for integrating qualitative and implementation evidence within intervention effectiveness reviews. J Clin Epidemiol. 2018 May;97:70-78. doi: 10.1016/j.jclinepi.2017.11.029. Epub 2017 Dec 11. PubMed PMID: 29242095.

Flemming K, Booth A, Hannes K, Cargo M, Noyes J. Cochrane Qualitative and Implementation Methods Group guidance series-paper 6: reporting guidelines for qualitative, implementation, and process evaluation evidence syntheses. J Clin Epidemiol. 2018 May;97:79-85. doi: 10.1016/j.jclinepi.2017.10.022. Epub 2017 Dec 6. PubMed PMID: 29222060.


CRD Undertaking Systematic Reviews - Chapter 6 on Incorporating qualitative evidence in or alongside effectiveness reviews

Exemplar: 'Medication career' or 'Moral career'? The two sides of managing antidepressants: A metaethnography of patients' experience of antidepressants


In A Nutshell series

1. Best Fit Framework Synthesis


Email: Andrew Booth


An Archive of the materials from ESQUIRE2009ESQUIRE2010ESQUIRE2011; ESQUIRE2012; ESQUIRE2013; ESQUIRE2014 ESQUIRE2015 ESQUIRE2016 ESQUIRE2017 is also available. 




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